Posts Tagged «Sea ice»

This new data set is a concerted effort to collect as many observations of sea ice thickness as possible in one place with consistent formats and with clear and abundant documentation. It will allow the community to better utilize what is now a considerable body of observations from moorings, submarines, aircraft, and satellites.

In mid-September Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum extent and volume. There are annual fluctuations — 2012 was a record low for both measures — but reports of a recent ‘rebound’ are short-sighted. Axel Schweiger explains why the downward long-term trend is clear.

The Arctic Sea Ice Volume Anomaly time series is calculated using the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) developed at APL/PSC.  Updates will be generated at approximately monthly intervals.

Baxter, I., Ding, Q., Schweiger, A., L’Heureux, M., Baxter, S., Wang, T., . . . Lu, J. (2019). How Tropical Pacific Surface Cooling Contributed to Accelerated Sea Ice Melt from 2007 to 2012 as Ice Is Thinned by Anthropogenic Forcing. Journal of Climate, 32(24), 8583-8602. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0783.1

Europe’s Cryosat mission is now watching the ebb and flow of Arctic sea ice with high precision….Tuesday’s release shows a complete seasonal cycle, from October 2010, when the Arctic Ocean was beginning to freeze up following the summer melt, right through to March 2011, when the sea ice was approaching peak thickness. Cryosat found the volume (area multiplied by thickness) of sea ice in the central Arctic in March 2011 to have been 14,500 cubic kilometres. This figure is very similar to that suggested by PIOMAS (Panarctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System), an influential computer model that has been used to estimate Arctic sea ice volume

The primary objective of this research is to construct a comprehensive bias-corrected sea ice thickness record and use it to better quantify and understand the dramatic changes that have been observed in the Arctic ice pack. To do this all available Arctic sea ice thickness observations will be integrated, from satellite, aircraft, and subsurface measurements, and used to identify and correct systematic errors through comparisons with a common reference. With the resultant record four science questions will be answered:• What are the systematic differences between different measurement systems for sea ice thickness?• What are the spatial patterns in the trends…

The Bering Sea – lying at the northern end of the Pacific Ocean and north of the Aleutian Chain – is the source of over 50% of the total US fish catch and the home to immense populations of birds and marine mammals. This project uses a state-of-the-art numerical ocean-ice model to investigate prior (and predict future) changes in the Bering Sea ice cover and study the impacts of these changes on Bering Sea marine and eco-systems.

PI: Jinlun ZhangThis project will investigate future changes in the seasonal linkages and interactions among arctic sea ice, the water column, and the marine production cycles and trophic structure as an integrated system. This is a collaborative project led by Jinlun Zhang with Mike Steele, Univ. of WA, Y. Spitz, Oregon State Univ., C. Ashjian, Woods Hole, and R. Campbell, Univ. of Rhode Island.Read More

Ding, Q., Schweiger, A., L’Heureux, M., Steig, E. J., Battisti, D. S., Johnson, N. C., Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., Po-Chedley, S., Zhang, Q., Harnos, K., Bushuk, M., Markle, B., and Baxter, I. (2018), Fingerprints of internal drivers of Arctic sea ice loss in observations and model simulations. Nature Geoscience.

Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, A. Graves, A. Mahoney, I. Rigor, and H. Melling,’ Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?’, Deep Sea Research, 2005.

This project has two main objectives: 1) determination of the physical and microbial characteristics and microstructural evolution of sea ice exposed to severe melt; and 2) exploration of the influence of biogenic particles such as sea ice algae, bacteria and polymer gels on the melting behavior of sea ice.

The dramatic melt expected over the next week signals that global warming is having a major impact on the polar region

IceBridge is a NASA project that supports the acquisition of various data from aircraft in both polar regions that will bridge the gap in coverage between the now defunct ICESat satellite and the next generation ICESat II to be launched in 2015 at the earliest. The main focuses of the data acquisition will be laser altimetry and radar measurements of ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and sea ice (Arctic and Antarctica).

This project is to examine over 30 years of landfast ice records, cyclone tracks and intensity along with frequency and timing of coastal high wind conditions, nearshore pack ice drift, and coastal weather observations in two representative arctic coastal regions.

The objective of this project is to investigate impacts of Arctic sea ice reduction on bromine, ozone, and mercury chemical processes, transport, and distribution from sea ice surfaces on the Arctic Ocean, and atmospheric transport of these chemicals to high mountains on land.

The participants of the IABP work together to maintain a network of drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes including support to the World Climate Research Programme and the World Weather Watch Programme.

Kwok, R., and D.A. Rothrock,’ Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008′, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035, 2009.

Kwok, R., D.A. Rothrock, H.L. Stern, and G.F. Cunningham, 1995, Determination of the age distribution of sea ice from Lagrangian observations of ice motion, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 33, pp. 392-400.

Kwok, R., G.F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H.J. Zwally, and D. Yi,’ Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003-2008′, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2009JC005312, 2009.

November 12, 2019 – Former UW Arctic Fulbright Chair, Kent Moore with PSC researchers Axel Schweiger, Jinlun Zhang and Mike Steele on how the  oldest and thickest Arctic sea ice is disappearing twice as fast as ice in the rest of the Arctic Ocean.

Light, B., G.A. Maykut, and T.C. Grenfell,’ A temperature-dependent, structural-optical model of first-year sea ice’, J. Geophys. Res., 109, 10.1029/2003JC002164, 2004.

Light, B., T. C. Grenfell, and D. K. Perovich, “Transmission and absorption of solar radiation by Arctic sea ice during the melt season”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C03023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003977, 2008.

Light, B., R. E. Brandt, and S. G. Warren,’ Hydrohalite in cold sea ice: Laboratory observations of single crystals, surface accumulations, and migration rates under a temperature gradient, with application to ‘Snowball Earth’‘, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C07018, doi:10.1029/2008JC005211, 2009.

Lindsay, R. W., 2010: A new sea ice thickness climate data record, Eos, 44, 405–406.

Lindsay, R.W., J. Zhang, A. Schweiger and M.A. Steele, “Seasonal predictions of ice extent in the Arctic Ocean”, J. Geophys. Res., 113(C2), 2008.

Lindsay, R.W., J. Zhang, A. Schweiger, M.A. Steele and H. Stern, “Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in 2007 Follows Thinning Trend”, J. Clim., 22, 165-176, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2521., 2009.

Liu, Z., & Schweiger, A., 2019. Low-level and surface wind jets near sea ice edge in the Beaufort Sea in late autumn. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 6873– 6891.

Miller, R.L. and others including J. Zhang, CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 2, 441-477, doi:10.1002/2013MS000266, 2014.

The overarching goal of the MIZMAS project is to enhance our understanding of MIZ processes and interactions, and to strengthen our prediction capability of future climate change, particularly the changes in both the ITD and the FSD, in the CBS. We propose numerical investigations of the historical and contemporary changes in the sea ice and upper ocean of the CBSMIZ. We also plan to investigate future changes of the CBSMIZ under global warming scenarios. These investigations involve new and potentially transformative theoretical and numerical work to develop, implement, and validate a new coupled ice–ocean Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS) that will enhance the representation of the unique MIZ processes by incorporating a FSD and corresponding model improvements.

Moore, G. W. K., Schweiger, A., Zhang, J., & Steele, M. (2019). Spatiotemporal Variability of Sea Ice in the Arctic’s Last Ice Area. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(20), 11237-11243. doi:10.1029/2019gl083722

Moore, G.W.K., A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, and M. Steele, What caused the remarkable February 2018 North Greenland Polynya? Geophys. Res. Lett., 45,, 2018.

Increasing summer ice melt in the Arctic Ocean could shift global weather patterns and make polar waters more navigable. But scientists say forecasting Arctic ice and weather remains a massive challenge. The prospect of more ice-free water during Arctic Ocean summers has triggered efforts to improve ice and weather forecasts at the top of the world

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Percival, D. B., D. A. Rothrock, A. S. Thorndike, and T. Gneiting, “The variance of mean sea-ice thickness: Effect of long-range dependence”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C01004, doi:10.1029/2007JC004391, 2008

Perovich, D. K., J. A. Richter-Menge, K. F. Jones, and B. Light,’ Sunlight, water, and ice: Extreme Arctic sea ice melt during the summer of 2007′, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034007, 2008.

Perovich, D.K., T.C. Grenfell, B. Light, et al.,’ Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice’, J. Geophys. Res., 114, 10.1029/2008JC004892, 2009.

Pfirman, S., W.F. Haxby, R. Colony, and I. Rigor,’ Variability in Arctic Sea Ice Drift’, Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 31, doi :10.1029 /2004GL020063, 2004.

Significant changes in arctic climate have been detected in recent years. One of the most striking changes is the decline of sea ice concurrent with changes in atmospheric circulation and increased surface air temperature.

Rampal, P., J. Weiss, D. Marsan, R. Lindsay, and H. Stern, 2008, Scaling properties of sea ice deformation from buoy dispersion analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C03002, doi:10.1029/2007JC004143.

Richter-Menge, J.A., D.K. Perovich, B.C. Elder, K. Claffey, I.Rigor, M. Ortmeyer, “Ice Mass Balance Buoys: A tool for measuring and attributing changes in the thickness of Arctic sea ice cover“, Annals of Glaciology, V.44, 2006.

Rigor, I.G., and Jackie Richter-Menge,’ Sea Ice Extent and Thickness. FY 2004 NOAA Annual Report: The State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System For Climate’, ed. Diane M. Stanitski, NOAA Office of Climate Observation, Silver Spring, MD, 20910. USA, pp. 67-74, 2005.

Rigor, I.G.,’ Sea ice’, Encyclopedia of the Arctic, Routledge, New York, 2004.

Rigor, I.G., and J.M. Wallace,’ Variations in the age of Arctic sea-ice and summer sea-ice extent’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L09401, 10.1029/2004GL019492, 2004.

Rigor, I.G., J. Richter-Menge, C. Lee,’ Arctic Sea Ice and Ocean Observations’, Arctic Research of the United States, v. 19, 2005.

Rothrock, D. A., D. B. Percival, and M. Wensnahan, “The decline in arctic sea-ice thickness: Separating the spatial, annual, and interannual variability in a quarter century of submarine data”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C05003, doi:10.1029/2007JC004252, 2008.

The response of Arctic sea ice to a warming climate includes decreases in extent, lower ice concentration, and reduced ice thickness. Summer melt seasons are lengthening with earlier melt onsets and later autumn freezeups. We believe this will likely lead to an increase in so-called “rotten ice” in the Arctic at the end of summer. This ice has experienced a long summer of melt, is fragile, difficult to work with, and has received little attention. Comprehensive information on its physical and microbiological properties does not exist. Our team is embarking on an ambitious field campaign in order to study this poorly-understood type of sea ice in the context of its microstructural properties and potential for habitability.

Schmidt, G.A. and others including J. Zhang, Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 2, 141-184, doi:10.1002/2013MS000265, 2014.

Schweiger, A. J., and J. Zhang (2015), Accuracy of short-term sea ice drift forecasts using a coupled ice-ocean model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2015jc011273.

Schweiger, A., R. Lindsay, J. Zhang, M. Steele, H. Stern, Uncertainty in modeled arctic sea ice volume, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JC007084, 2011