Posts Tagged «Oceanography»

Aagaard, K. and R.A. Woodgate,’ Some thoughts on the freezing and melting of sea ice and their effects on the ocean’, Ocean Modelling, 3, 127-135, 2001.

Aagaard, K., T.J. Weingartner, S.L. Danielson, R.A. Woodgate, G.C. Johnson, and T.E. Whitledge,’ Some controls on flow and salinity in Bering Strait’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19602, doi:10.1029/2006GL026612, 2006.

Aagaard, K., R. Andersen, J. Swift, and J. Johnson,’ A large eddy in the central Arctic Ocean’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L09601, doi:10.1029/2008GL033461, 2008.

The Arctic Ocean is (currently) a remarkably quiet place, as the presence of sea-ice isolates the ocean from the mixing effects of wind.  In this interdisciplinary project, we examine how the upper Arctic may change if sea-ice retreat increases.  We use observations and models to study Arctic mixed layer depths, internal wave energy, and the mixing of nutrients into the photic zone, with particular interest on  impacts on Arctic ecosystems.

Atlantic Waters (AWs) are volumetrically the largest inflow to the Arctic Ocean.  They form the major subsurface circum-arctic oceanic transport system, and are the greatest pan-arctic reservoir of oceanic heat. This project draws on a variety of observational data to study flow pathways,  fundamental properties and change in the Atlantic waters in the western Arctic.

The Bering Strait is the only Pacific gateway to the Arctic Ocean. Waters flowing through the strait are a key source of nutrients, heat and freshwater for the Arctic. Since 1990, APL-UW has measured the properties of this throughflow using long-term in situ moorings, supported by annual cruises. Project details, data, cruise reports and papers are available on the project web site.

Bitz, C., P. Gent, R.A. Woodgate, A. Hall, M. Holland and R. Lindsay,’ The influence of sea-ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2′, J. Climate, 19, 2437-2450, 2006.

Bjork, G., S. Soderkvist, P. Winsor, A. Nikolopoulos, and M. Steele, “Return of the cold halocline layer to the Amundsen Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for the sea ice mass balance“, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014157, 2002

Boyd, T.J., M. Steele, R.D. Muench, and J.T. Gunn,’ Partial recovery of the Arctic Ocean halocline’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014047, 2002.

Danielson, S., K. Aagaard, T. Weingartner, S. Martin, P. Winsor, G. Gawarkiewicz, and D. Quadfasel,’ The St. Lawrence polynya and the Bering shelf circulation: New observations that test the models’, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C09023, doi:10.1029/2005JC003268, 2006.

Darby, D.A., J. Ortiz, L. Polyak, S. Lund, M. Jakobsson, and R.A. Woodgate,’ The role of currents and sea ice in both slowly deposited central Arctic and rapidly deposited Chukchi-Alaskan margin sediments’, Global Planet. Change, 68, 56-70, 2009.

Dewey, S., Morison, J., Zhang, J., 2017. An Edge-Referenced Surface Fresh Layer in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone. Journal of Physical Oceanography. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-16-0158.1

Dmitrenko, I. A., S. A. Kirillov, V.V. Ivanov, and R. A. Woodgate,’ Mesoscale Atlantic Water Eddy off the Laptev Sea continental slope carries the signature of upstream interaction’, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07005, doi: 10.1029/ 2007JC00449, 2008.

Dmitrenko, I.A., et al., including R.A. Woodgate,’ Seasonal modification of the Arctic Ocean intermediate water layer off the eastern Laptev Sea continental shelf break’, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2008JC005229, 2009.

Fahrbach, E., S. Harms, G. Rohardt, M. Schroeder, and R.A. Woodgate,’ The flow of bottom water in the northwestern Weddell Sea’, J. Geophys. Res., 106(C2), 2761-2778, 2001.

Falkner, K., M. Steele, R. Woodgate, J. Swift, K. Aagaard, and J. Morison, “Dissolved oxygen extrema in the Arctic Ocean halocline from the North Pole to the Lincoln Sea“, Deep-Sea Res., Volume 52, Issue 7, Pages 1138-1154, 2005.

Foldvik, A., T. Gammelsrod, S. Østerhus, E. Fahrback, G. Rohardt, M. Schroder, K.W. Nicholls, L. Padman, and R.A. Woodgate,’ Ice shelf water overflow and bottom water formation in the southern Weddell Sea’, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C02015, 10.1029/2003JC002008, 2004.

Our overarching goals are to study and understand the physical processes in the high latitude oceans, including large-scale circulation, shelf-basin interactions, and water mass formation; linkages between polar oceans and the lower latitudes; and the role of polar processes in climate. We do this primarily with observations, drawing on theory and modelling results to explain processes we observe. Our primary tools are subsurface moorings in ice-covered waters, which we deploy in several regions to study different questions.

Kadko, D., and K. Aagaard,’ Glimpses of Arctic Ocean shelf-basin interaction from submarine-borne radium sampling‘, Deep-Sea Res. I,, 56, 32-40, 2009.

Karcher, M., F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, E. Hunke, and J. Zhang,’ On the dynamics of Atlantic Water circulation in the Arctic Ocean’, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C04S02, doi:10.1029/2006JC003630, 2007.

Kikuchi, T., S. Nishino, R. Woodgate, B. Rabe, U. Schauer, and S. Pisarev,’ Confluence and mixing of Atlantic, Pacific and Siberian shelf water masses around the Mendeleev Ridge of the Arctic Ocean’, Eos Trans. AGU, 90, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract GCS1A-0715, 2009.

Kwok, R., S. Farrell, R. Forsberg, K. Giles, S. Laxon, D. McAdoo, J. Morison, L. Padman, C. Peralta-Ferriz, A. Proshutinsky, and M. Steele,’ Combining satellite altimetry, time-variable gravity, and bottom pressure observations to understand the Arctic Ocean: A transformative opportunity’, Proceedings of the OceanObs09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., 2, ESA Publication WPP-30, 2010.

Lindsay, R.W., D.M. Holland, and R.A. Woodgate, “Halo of low ice concentration observed over the Maud Rise seamount“, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 10.1029/2004GL019831, 2004.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, “Arctic Ocean ice thickness: modes of variability and the best locations from which to monitor them”, J. Physical Ocean, 36, 496-506, 2006.

Melling, H., K.K.Falkner, R.A.Woodgate, S.Prinsenberg, A.Muenchow, D.Greenberg, T.Agnew, R.Samelson, C.Lee, B.Petrie,’ Freshwater Fluxes via Pacific and Arctic Outflows across the Canadian Polar Shelf’, ASOF (Arctic Subarctic Ocean Fluxes) special volume, Springer-Verlag, 2008.

Mizobata, K., K.Shimada, R.Woodgate, S-I. Saitoh and J. Wang,’ Estimation of heat flux through the eastern Bering Strait’, Journal of Oceanography, submitted 2008.

Morison, J., M. Steele, T. Kikuchi, K. Falkner, and W. Smethie,’ The relaxation of Central Arctic Ocean hydrography toward pre-1990s climatology‘, Geophys. Res. Lett.,33, L17604, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026826, 2006.

Nicholls, K.W., L. Padman, M. Schroder, R.A. Woodgate, A. Jenkins, and S. Østerhus,’ Water mass modification over the continental shelf north of Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica’, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 10.1029/2002JC001713, 2003.

The observatory is staffed by an international research team that establishes a camp at the North Pole each spring to take the pulse of the Arctic Ocean and learn how the world’s northernmost sea helps regulate global climate.

Peterson, B.J., J. McClelland, R. Curry, R.M. Holmes, J.E. Walsh, and K. Aagaard,’ Trajectory shifts in the arctic and subarctic freshwater cycle’, Science, 313, 1061-1066, 2006.

Pickart, R.S., L.J. Pratt, D.J. Torres, T.E. Whitledge, A.Y. Proshutinsky, K. Aagaard, T.A. Agnew, G.W.K. Moore, and H.J. Dail,’ Evolution and dynamics of the flow through Herald Canyon in the western Chukchi Sea‘, Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.08.002 , 2009

Polyakov, I. V., V. Alexeev, G. I. Belchansky, I. A. Dmitrenko, V. Ivanov, S. Kirillov, A. Korablev, M. Steele, L. A. Timokhov, and I. Yashayaev, “Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes”, J. Climate, 21, 364-384, 2008.

Polyakov, I. V., et al., M. Steele, et al.,’ Observational program tracks Arctic Ocean transition to a warmer state’, EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 88(40) 398-399, 2007.

Polyakov, I.V., Beszczynska, A., Carmack, E.C., Dmitrenko, I.A., Fahrbach, E., Frolov, I.E., Gerdes, R., Hansen, E., Holfort, J., Ivanov, V.V., Johnson, M.A., Karcher, M., Kauker, F., Morison, J., Orvik, K.A., Schauer, U., Simmons, H.L., Skagseth, Ø., Sokolov, V.T., Steele, M., Timokhov, L.A., Walsh, D., Walsh, J.E.,’ One more step toward a warmer Arctic’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17605, 10.1029/2005GL023740, 2005.

Polyakov, I. V., V. Alexeev, G. I. Belchansky, I. A. Dmitrenko, V. Ivanov, S. Kirillov, A. Korablev, M. Steele, L. A. Timokhov, and I. Yashayaev,’ Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes’, J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1748.1, 2007.

Polyakov, I. V., V. Alexeev, G. I. Belchansky, I. A. Dmitrenko, V. Ivanov, S. Kirillov, A. Korablev, M. Steele, L. A. Timokhov, and I. Yashayaev,’ Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes’, J. Climate, 21, 364-384, 2008.

Proshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M. Steele, and others,’ The Arctic: Oceans [in “State of the Climate in 2008”]’, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90(8), S99-S102, 2009.

Rainville, L., and R.A. Woodgate,’ Observations of internal wave generation in the seasonally ice-free Arctic’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, 10.1029/2009GL041291, 2009.

Rawlings, M.A., et al. including R.A. Woodgate,’ Analysis of the arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations’, Eos Trans., AGU, 90, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract GC42A-05, 2009.

Rawlins, M. A., M. Steele, M. C. Serreze, C. J. Vorosmarty, W. Ermold, R. B. Lammers, K. C. McDonald, T. M. Pavelsky, A. Shilomanov, and J. Zhang, “Tracing freshwater anomalies through the air-land-ocean system: A case study from the Mackenzie River Basin and the Beaufort Gyre”, Atmos. Ocean, 47(1), 79–97, doi:10.3137/OC301, 2009.

Through this project, investigators will characterize the seasonal linkages between the land surface greenness and a suite of land, atmosphere, and ocean characteristics, focusing on the Beringia/ Beaufort Sea, where there have been strong positive increases in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over the past 25 years, and the west-central Arctic Eurasia region, where the NDVI trends have been slightly negative.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, A. J. Slater, M. Steele, J. Zhang and K. Trenberth,’ The large-scale energy budget of the arctic’, ”J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11122, doi:10.1029/2006JD008230, 2007.

Shaw, W.J., T.P. Stanton, M.G. McPhee, J.H. Morison, and D.G. Martinson,’ Role of the upper ocean in the energy budget of Arctic sea ice during SHEBA’, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2008JC004991, 2009.

Sirevaag, A., M.G. McPhee, J.H. Morison, W.J. Shaw, and T.P. Stanton, ‘Wintertime mixed layer measurements at Maud Rise, Weddell Sea‘, J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2008JC005141, 2010.

Smith, M. and Thomson, J., 2019. Ocean surface turbulence in newly formed marginal ice zones. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(3), pp.1382-1398. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014405

Steele, M., R. Morley, and W. Ermold,’ PHC: A global ocean hydrography with a high quality Arctic Ocean’, J. Climate, 14, 2079-2087, 2001.

Steele, M.,’ The cold halocine’, Encyclopedia of the Arctic, Routledge, New York, 2004.

Steele, M., and W. Ermold, “Salinity trends on the Siberian shelves“, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24308, 10.1029/2004GL021302, 2004.

Steele, M., A. Porcelli, and J. Zhang, Origins of the SHEBA freshwater anomaly in the Mackenzie River delta, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024813, 2006.

Steele, M., W. Ermold, and J. Zhang,’ Arctic Ocean surface warming trends over the past 100 years’, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02614, doi:10.1029/2007GL031651, 2008.